Mesenchymal stem cells alleviate the early brain injury of subarachnoid hemorrhage partly by suppression of Notch1-dependent neuroinflammation: involvement of Botch
- 1 Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, The National Key Clinical Specialty, The Engineering Technology Research Center of Education Ministry of China, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory on Brain Function Repair and Regeneration, Guangzhou, 510282, China.
- 2 Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, The National Key Clinical Specialty, The Engineering Technology Research Center of Education Ministry of China, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory on Brain Function Repair and Regeneration, Guangzhou, 510282, China. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Background: Activated microglia-mediated neuroinflammation has been regarded as an underlying key player in the pathogenesis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI). The therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation has been demonstrated in several brain injury models and is thought to involve modulation of the inflammatory response. The present study investigated the salutary effects of BMSCs on EBI after SAH and the potential mechanism mediated by Notch1 signaling pathway inhibition.
Methods: The Sprague-Dawley rats SAH model was induced by endovascular perforation method. BMSCs (3 × 106 cells) were transplanted intravenously into rats, and N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl-L-alanyl)]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), a Notch1 activation inhibitor, and Notch1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) were injected intracerebroventricularly. The effects of BMSCs on EBI were assayed by neurological score, brain water content (BWC), blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, magnetic resonance imaging, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Fluoro-Jade C staining. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry staining, Western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to analyze various proteins and transcript levels. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: BMSCs treatment mitigated the neurobehavioral dysfunction, BWC and BBB disruption associated with EBI after SAH, reduced ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 and cluster of differentiation 68 staining and interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha expression in the left hemisphere but concurrently increased IL-10 expression. DAPT or Notch1 siRNA administration reduced Notch1 signaling pathway activation following SAH, ameliorated neurobehavioral impairments, and BBB disruption; increased BWC and neuronal degeneration; and inhibited activation of microglia and production of pro-inflammatory factors. The augmentation of Notch1 signal pathway agents and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB after SAH were suppressed by BMSCs but the levels of Botch were upregulated in the ipsilateral hemisphere. Botch knockdown in BMSCs abrogated the protective effects of BMSCs treatment on EBI and the suppressive effects of BMSCs on Notch1 expression.
Conclusions: BMSCs treatment alleviated neurobehavioral impairments and the inflammatory response in EBI after SAH; these effects may be attributed to Botch upregulation in brain tissue, which subsequently inhibited the Notch1 signaling pathway.
Keywords: Botch; Early brain injury; Mesenchymal stem cells; Neuroinflammation; Notch1; Subarachnoid hemorrhage.